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SW Amerind Skull replica measures 7 3/4 in. The SW Amerind Skull replica is museum quality polyurethane cast. Made in the USA. Cradle-flattened cranium back. Our precise skull can be used as a teaching tool, museum skull exhibit, home decor skull or office decor skull.
The genetic history of Indigenous peoples of the Americas (also named Amerindians or Amerinds in physical anthropology) is divided into two sharply distinct episodes: the initial peopling of the Americas during about 20,000 to 14,000 years ago (20–14 kya), and European contact, after about 500 years ago.
The former is the determinant factor for the number of genetic lineages, zygosity mutations and founding haplotypes present in today’s Indigenous Amerindian populations.
Most amerindian groups are derived from two ancestral lineages, which formed in Siberia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, between about 36,000 and 25,000 years ago, East Eurasian and Ancient North Eurasian.
They later dispersed throughout the Americas after about 16,000 years ago (an exception are the Na Dene and Eskimo–Aleut speaking groups, which are partially derived from Siberian populations which entered the Americas at a later time).
In the early 2000s, archaeogenetics was primarily based on human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. Autosomal “atDNA” markers are also used, but differ from mtDNA or Y-DNA in that they overlap significantly.
Analyses of genetics among Amerindian and Siberian populations have been used to argue for early isolation of founding populations on Beringia and for later, more rapid migration from Siberia through Beringia into the New World.
The microsatellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial peopling of the region.
The Na-Dené, Inuit and Indigenous Alaskan populations exhibit Haplogroup Q-M242; however, they are distinct from other indigenous Amerindians with various mtDNA and atDNA mutations.
This suggests that the peoples who first settled in the northern extremes of North America and Greenland derived from later migrant populations than those who penetrated farther south in the Americas.
Linguists and biologists have reached a similar conclusion based on analysis of Amerindian language groups and ABO blood group system distributions.
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