Canis Lupus familiaris Skull Replica measures 8.5 inches. Domestic Dog Skull Replica is museum quality polyurethane cast. 2-part skull (separate cranium and jaw). Made in USA. Know as Domestic dog.

The domestic dog or Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.

The domestic dog or canis lupus familiaris and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct.

The dog was the first animal to be domesticated, and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.

Their long association with humans has led domestic dogs or canis lupus familiaris to be uniquely attuned to human behavior and they are able to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canids.

Dogs vary widely in shape, size and colors. They perform many roles for humans, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and military, companionship and, more recently, aiding disabled people and therapeutic roles. This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of “man’s best friend

Domestic dogs or canis lupus familiaris are highly variable in height and weight. The smallest known adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier, that stood only 2.5 in. at the shoulder, 3.7 in. in length along the head-and-body, and weighed only 4.0 oz.

The largest known dog was an English Mastiff which weighed 343 lbs. and was 98 in. from the snout to the tail. The tallest dog is a Great Dane that stands 42.0 in. at the shoulder.

The coats of domestic dogs are of two varieties: “double” being common with dogs originating from colder climates, made up of a coarse guard hair and a soft down hair, or “single”, with the topcoat only.

All Canis Lupus familiaris regardless of their size and type, have an identical skeletal structure with the exception of the number of bones in the tail, although there is significant skeletal variation between dogs of different types.

The dog’s skeleton is well adapted for running; the vertebrae on the neck and back have extensions for powerful back muscles to connect to, the long ribs provide plenty of room for the heart and lungs, and the shoulders are unattached to the skeleton allowing great flexibility.

Compared to the dog’s wolf-like ancestors, selective breeding since domestication has seen the dog’s skeleton greatly enhanced in size for larger types as mastiffs and miniaturized for smaller types such as terriers.

Dwarfism has been selectively utilized for some types where short legs are advantageous such as dachshunds and corgis. Most dogs naturally have 26 vertebrae in their tails, but some with naturally short tails have as few as three.

The Canis Lupus familiaris skull has identical components regardless of breed type, but there is significant divergence in terms of skull shape between types.

The three basic skull shapes are the elongated dolichocephalic type as seen in sighthounds, the intermediate mesocephalic type, and the very short and broad brachycephalic type exemplified by mastiff type skulls.